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Imperative ProgrammiersprachenObjekt-orientierte ProgrammiersprachenSkriptsprachenEsoterische Programmiersprachen

Esoterische Programmiersprachen

Es gibt neben etlichen, "ernsthaften" Programmiersprachen wie Haskell, C/C++, Java, Python und vielen anderen auch Programmiersprachen, welche als esoterische Programmiersprachen bezeichnet werden. Hierbei handelt es sich hautsächlich um Sprachen, die entweder nur dafür entwickelt wurden, um absurd seltsame Sprachen zu haben, zu zeigen, dass es auch Programmiersprachen gibt, welche auf einem sehr niedrigen Anspruchslevel agieren oder mit sehr wenig Zeichen auskommen, oder so kompliziert sind, dass eine sinnvolle Programmierung in der Sprache einfach nicht möglich ist. Im folgenden wollen wir euch ein paar dieser esoterischen Programmiersprachen zeigen, entsprechende "Hello World"-Beispiele dafür geben und auch eventuelle Entwicklungsumgebungen präsentieren


Brainfuck

Die Programmiersprache Brainfuck ist eine den Turing-Maschinen nachempfundene Programmiersprache. Sie bedient sich dabei einem Speicherband, sowie lediglich 8 verschiedenen Zeichen. Sie ist unter der Annahme, dass das Speicherband unendlich groß sein darf, sogar Turing-vollständig. Entwickelt wurde diese Sprache um zu zeigen, dass auch mit lediglich 8 Zeichen eine nahezu Turing-vollständige Sprache entwickelt werden kann.

Ein Hello-World-Programm in Brainfuck sieht folgendermaßen aus:

>++++[-<++++++++>]
>>+++++[-<++++[-<++++>]>]<
>>+++++[-<+++++[-<++++>]>]<<++++++++<
--------.+++++++++++++++
>-------.+++++++..+++.<<.>.>.+++.------.--------.

Für Brainfuck existiert eine Entwicklungsumgebung, welche direkt mit Interpreter kommt: VisualBrainfuck.
Weitere Beispiele, Tutorials und Informationen finden sich hier.


Befunge

Befunge ist eine Programmiersprache, welche sich 2-dimensionaler Programmierung bedient. Hierbei werden mittels verschiedener Operatoren Stackoperationen durchgeführt. Das Beeindruckende: Der Operator p verändert den Code zur Laufzeit. Hierdruch können teils schwierig zu bauende Konstruktionen vereinfacht werden. Entwickelt wurde diese Sprache um zu zeigen, wie viel Einfluss Änderungen des Programmcodes während der Compilezeit haben.

Ein Hello-World-Programm sieht in Befunge noch relativ leserlich aus:

"!dlroW olleH">:v
              ^,_@

Eine Entwicklungsumgebung für Befunge ist YABI93.
Im Wikipedia-Artikel zu Befunge finden sich eine Übersicht über die Zeichen sowie weitere Beispiele.


JSFuck

Die Programmiersprache JSFuck, welche für JavaScriptFuck steht, ist eine esoterische Programmiersprache, welche jedoch auch gültiger JavaScript Code ist. Das bedeutet, kein separater Compiler wird benötigt, da ein jeder Browser mit JavaScript diesen Code interpretieren kann. JSFuck benutzt verschiedene Array-, Stack- und Shifting-Operationen und kommt mit nur sechs verschiedenen Zeichen unter signifikanter Vergrößerung des Codes aus. Das folgende "normale" JavaScript-Programm (21 Zeichen) wäre in JSFuck-Schreibweise ganze 16383 Zeichen lang.

alert("Hello World")

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Ein JavaScript-zu-JSFuck-Compiler sowie detaillierte Erklärungen zur Funktionsweise finden sich auf der offiziellen Webseite.


Malbolge

Die Programmiersprache Malbolge wird als eine der schwierigsten Programmiersprachen bezeichnet. Dies liegt daran, dass, während das Programm ausgeführt wird, ausgeführte Zeichen den nachstehenden Code verändern. Dadurch wird das Schreiben von effektiven Programmen nahezu unmöglich. Das erste Programm wurde zwei Jahre nach der Entstehung der Sprache entwickelt.

Dieses "Hello World"-Programm wurde mittels Brute-Force gefunden:

(=<`#9]~6ZY32Vx/4Rs+0No-&Jk)"Fh}|Bcy?`=*z]Kw%oG4UUS0/@-ejc(:'8dc

Eine Entwicklungsumgebung ist bereitgestellt durch HeLL IDE.
In der Wikipedia befinden sich weitere Erläuterungen zur Funktionsweise von Malbolge.


Piet

Piet ist eine grafische Programmiersprache. Befehle werden durch die Position, Größe und Farbe von rechteckigen Flächen in einer GIF-Datei (singleframe, keine Animation) bestimmt. Piet ist ebenfalls eine Stackbasierte Sprache und theoretisch sogar Turing-vollständig, viele Interpreter erlauben jedoch nicht unendlich große Speicherwerte.

Ein Hello-World-Programm sieht in Piet so aus:
Piet Hello-World-Programm

Für Piet existiert eine simple Online-IDE (JavaScript benötigt): Rapapaing Piet IDE. Detailliertere Erklärungen zur Programmierung befinden sich auf der Webseite des Projekts.


Whitespace

Whitespace ist eine Programmiersprache, welche zwischen Leerzeichen, Tabs und Zeilenumbrüchen unterscheidet. Entwickelt wurde diese unter dem Vorwand, dass man so Druckerschwärze sparen könnte. Da der Whitespace-Interpreter alle "nicht-Whitespace-Zeichen" ignoriert, können so Whitespace Programme in anderen Programmcodestrukturen wie C-Code versteckt werden, ohne das es unbedingt sofort auffällt. Wir würden euch natürlich gerne ein Beispiel geben aber ihr würdet es nicht lesen können denn...nun...es ist unsichtbar.

Es gibt Whitespace-Entwicklungsumgebungen - wie etwa White Lips - welche die verschiedenen Whitespace-Zeichen verschiedenfarbig hervorheben, damit aber dem Argument der Druckerfarbeinsparung entgegenwirken. Auch einige Texteditoren wie Notepad++ bieten die Möglichkeit verschiedene Whitespace-Symbole zu kennzeichnen.
Weitere Beispiele und Erklärungen finden sich auf der (archivierten) Webseite von Whitespace.